General information about Uzbekistan
According to allcitycodes, the official name is the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbekistan Respublikasi, Republic of Uzbekistan). Located in Central Asia. The area is 448.9 thousand km2. Population 25.1 million people. (2002). The state language is Uzbek. The capital is Tashkent (2.1 million people, 2001). Public holiday – Independence Day of the Republic of Uzbekistan on September 1 (since 1991). The monetary unit is sum.
Member of more than 40 international organizations, incl. UN (since 1992) and its specialized organizations, IBRD (since 1992), IMF (since 1992), IFC, IDA (since 1992), EBRD, Asian Development Bank (since 1995), OSCE (since 1992), OIC (since 1992) ), CIS (since 1991), CAC (since 1994), GUUAM (since 1999), SCO (since 2001), has observer status in the WTO, etc.
Geography of Uzbekistan
Located between 64° East longitude, 41° North latitude. It has no access to the open seas, but includes the southern part of the Aral Sea with a coastline of 420 km.
In the northeast it borders with Kazakhstan (2203 km), in the east and southeast with Kyrgyzstan (1099 km) and Tajikistan (1161 km), in the west with Turkmenistan (1621 km), in the extreme south with Afghanistan (137 km).
The territory of Uzbekistan, located between the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers, is a combination of flat and mountainous reliefs. More than 70%, mainly in the northwestern part, are plains, mainly the Turan lowland, within which the Ustyurt plateau and the lower reaches of the Amu Darya stand out in the northwest, and the Kyzylkum desert in the north. The foothills and mountain ranges belonging to the systems of the Western Tien Shan and Gissar-Alay are located in the east and southeast and occupy approx. 1/3 of the territory. They are separated by intermountain valleys and depressions of the Tashkent-Holodnosteppe plain, Fergana (370 km long, 190 m wide), Sanzaro-Nurata, Samarkand, Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya valleys. The highest point of the Hissar Range is 4643 m. The lowest point of the territory is 12 m.
The longest rivers (km): Syrdarya (2122), Amudarya (1415), Zarafshan (877). Many artificial lakes, reservoirs. The largest is the Aral Lake-Sea, an inland drainless salty reservoir that has both marine and lacustrine features. From con. 1950s The level of the Aral Sea is rapidly decreasing due to an increase in the water intake of the Amudarya and Syrdarya for agricultural needs. The area of most of the divided water area – the “Great Aral” – is 37 thousand km2, the volume is up to 324 km3, the average depth is 20-23 m. The decrease in the level of the Aral and the desertification of adjacent territories is the largest environmental disaster, the scale of which goes beyond the region.
Soils are predominantly sierozem and gray-brown. The plains are characterized by desert vegetation, in the mountains – steppes, forests, mountain meadows.
The animal world is rich and varied. In the desert plains – an abundance of reptiles, numerous species of birds everywhere. Diversity of mammals, especially in tugai and deciduous mountain forests; in mountain steppes and meadows – relic ground squirrel, marmots; everywhere – a fox, a wolf.
The total mineral resource potential is estimated at 3.3 trillion US dollars. Explored oil reserves – 350 million tons, natural gas – approx. 2 trillion m3, coal – more than 2 billion tons, gold – 4 thousand tons (4th place in the world), uranium (7th place in the world), non-ferrous and rare metals. Large reserves of non-metallic raw materials, incl. phosphorites (more than 300 million tons).
The climate is sharply continental. The average temperature in January is from +4°С to -8°С, in July from +22°С to +32°С, the average annual rainfall is from 80 mm in the plains to 1000 mm in the mountains.
Population of Uzbekistan
The average annual population growth rate in 1970-2001 exceeded 2.45%, in 1991-2001 it was 1.75%. Since 1970, the proportion of the titular nationality has increased significantly, which has brought the population structure closer to a mono-ethnic one.
Birth rate 20.4‰, mortality 5.3‰, natural increase – 15.1‰, infant mortality (2001) 18.3 people. per 1000 newborns.
Of the total population in 2001, 37.1% were urban, 62.9% rural. 49.4% of the population are men, 50.6% are women. At the beginning In 2002, persons aged 0-14 years accounted for 36.2% of the total population, 15-64 years old – 59.5%, 65 years and older – 4.3%. Average life expectancy 70.3 years (1998). The retirement age is 55 for women, 60 for men. But a later retirement is stimulated by increasing the price of one year (month) of insurance experience on the appropriate scale, which gives a higher pension compared to the one due at 55 and 60 years.
99% of the population is literate. For every 1,000 people aged 15 and over in 1989, 775 people had a secondary education, and 92 people had a higher education.
More than 100 peoples and nationalities live in Uzbekistan. As of 1995, 75.8% of the population are Uzbeks, 6% Russians, 4.8% Tajiks, 4.1% Kazakhs, 2.5% Karakalpaks, 1.6% Tatars, 0.9% – Kyrgyz, 0.6% – Ukrainians, 0.1% – Jews, 3.6% – other nationalities. The main languages are Uzbek (74.3%), Russian (14.2%), Tajik (4.4%). 88% of believers are Muslims (mostly Sunnis), 9% are Orthodox, 3% are others.